The city centre was enclosed by stamped earth walls, reaching a width of 36 m ft at the base, and probably dating to c. These were not necessarily words but could have been symbols, pictograms.
Sometimes the Shang king took some or all of their territory away from a defeated ruler and gave it to his own followers to control. Their take on religion was rather pessimistic given that the rivers would rise unpredictably and therefore it was interpreted as manifestation of angry gods.
The Shang Dynasty, which was responsible for so many important advancements in culture, was looked back upon as a golden age of prosperity and, in many ways, it was.
They give data on natural phenomena such as eclipses and comets, which help date the events. Under the Shang, ancient China emerges into the light of history. He was known as emperor Gao.