History from 1815 to 1848 a
In September by agreement with the Ottomans, Russia invaded and put down the revolution.
Restoration and revolution 1815 to 1848
As growing cities created markets for more and more agricultural goods, producers began to focus on agriculture for profit instead of for subsistence. Grol, Mickiewicz concentrated on patriotic themes and the glorious national past. Other English-speaking countries. In most cases these revolts were put down. Cassels, A. Cassels, ed. Hungary was thus placed under brutal martial law, with the Austrian government restored. He also put Paris through an extensive urban renewal project, providing the city with wide boulevards that critics were quick to point out could not be barricaded so easily in the event of revolution. This was largely the case for Belgium the Belgian Revolution in —1 ; Portugal the Liberal Wars of —34 ; and Switzerland the Sonderbund War of In yet other countries the absence of unrest was partly due to governments taking action to prevent revolutionary unrest, and pre-emptively grant some of the reforms demanded by revolutionaries elsewhere. The army refused to fire on the crowd, and Charles fled to England a common habit for deposed kings back then. On the other side were the forces of change: the bourgeoisie created by the dynamics of the Industrial Revolution, liberals, socialists, republicans, radicals, romantics, and nationalists. Main article: Greater Poland Uprising Polish people mounted a military insurrection against the Prussians in the Grand Duchy of Posen or the Greater Poland region , a part of Prussia since its annexation in
The new czar, Nicholas I, had no trouble crushing the Decembrist Revolution led by liberal army officers many of whom thought that their battle cry, "Constantine and Constitution", referred to their liberal candidate for the throne, Constantine, and his wife.
In the end, the European powers, having little regard for the non-Christian Turks and fearing Russian aggression that might threaten the balance of power in southeastern Europe, pressured the Ottomans to grant Greece its freedom.
The painless solution of the Belgian problem indicated that the European concert could work effectively in the face of demanded nationalism. Failure also taught reformers to be more realistic in trying to attain more liberal reforms or national unification.
It was the first major break in the old order since the Congress of Vienna. SinceSpain had been governed by a conservative-liberal parliamentary monarchy similar to and modelled on the July Monarchy in France.
Rulers would again think they had suppressed the revolutionary ideas, and the cycle would repeat.
Belgium through peaceful political negotiation and Poland with a force that would be their own downfall. The spirit of reform extended even further east to Russia where serfdom was abolished in Some years later a final international guarantee of Belgian independence was declared.
Europe once again took its cue from Paris, and revolutions broke out nearly everywhere in Europe during Those who killed him laughingly widened his wounds with their swords.
Role of metternich in european history
The next wave of revolutions would start in France in and spread to Poland, Belgium, Italy, and Germany. German poets, authors and composers, including Brothers Grimm and Beethoven, were beginning to inspire moods of national pride in the German states with their work. And Germany, thanks largely to Napoleon's administrative work, was consolidated into 38 states. Likewise, the Ottoman Turks put down the Romanian uprising. At the same time, Romantic thinkers, artists, and writers posed powerful challenge to the Enlightenment emphasis on rationalism and reason. The ten month insurrection led to inestimable death and imprisonment. Two such men in particular, Camillo Cavour in Italy and Otto von Bismarck in Germany, clearly recognized these lessons and skillfully put them to work in building nations forged, as Bismarck would put it, from "blood and iron". For the time being, the Congress of Vienna did restore the old order and a period of relative international peace known as the Concert of Europe, since it saw the major powers working largely together for several years to guard the common peace and old order. Shortly after the revolution in France, Belgian migrant workers living in Paris were encouraged to return to Belgium to overthrow the monarchy and establish a republic. This pan-European demand for nationalism as a force for change was not only obvious in the bigger nations but also from the voices of the smaller countries such as Belgium and Poland. Realizing that breaking up France would upset the balance of power, destabilize Europe, and lead to more revolutions, the allies restored it to its old position, punishing it with only a mild indemnity and short military occupation. For one thing, he had spread the idea of liberalism, especially in Western and Central Europe.
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