Diseases and insect pest management
Quality-based resistance can be induced in plants through management of nutrients and irrigation. Coton et Fibres Tropicales 29, — This includes: Destruction of infected plants Disinfection of storage bins, containers and equipment Soil disinfection by fumigation, pasteurization, solarization or drenching Since complete eradication is not always possible or economically feasible, this control method also includes reduction of the disease organism to an acceptable level.
These cultural practices are more preventive than curative and thus may require planning in advance [ 131415 ]. Google Scholar Forrester N. Google Scholar Brown J.
Integrated pest management
Coton et Fibres Tropicales 29, — It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity, and cycles adapted to local conditions rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. High soil moisture flood irrigation and basin irrigation increases the infestation by the red palm weevil in date palm groves [ 32 ]. Google Scholar Roome R. Row covers that exclude insects that carry disease, fences and other physical barriers also provide protection from pests. The goal of this strategy is to prevent pests from reaching economically damaging levels without causing risk to the environment. Organic fertilizers are added to date palm during the end of October—December. Google Scholar El-Tigani M. Google Scholar Gathukar R. Cultural and legislative measures. Google Scholar Follin J.
Rhodesian Agricult. The same devices of pheromone and light traps can also be used for mass trapping of adult insect pests, particularly gravid females that lead to drastic reduction in pest population Figure 4 [ 31 ].
In agricultural crops, crop rotation, selection of crop plant varieties, timing of planting and harvesting, irrigation management, crop rotation, and use of trap crops help reduce populations of weeds, microorganisms, insects, mites, and other pests. Soils with high population of diversified beneficial organisms such as ground beetles carabids and earwigs, which are commonly to be encountered in the date palm agroecosystem El-Shafie, unpublished dataare expected to maintain low levels of harmful pests.
Integrated pest management methods
Pruned palm trunk showing cut frond A , fibers B , and cut frond base or petiole pruning C. This is essential to avoid curving of palm head as the case with the cultivar Barhi. Coton et Fibres Tropicales 48, — Preview Unable to display preview. Google Scholar Eveleens K. Google Scholar Kabissa J. The factors that render crop habitat unsuitable for pests and diseases include limitation of resources, competition, parasitism, and predation [ 7 ]. The role of beneficial species on pests is of relatively greater importance in organic agriculture than in conventional agriculture, because organic growers do not have recourse to highly potent insecticides such as synthetic pyrethroids with which to tackle major pest problems [ 13 ]. Google Scholar El-Tigani M. Google Scholar Kibani T. Google Scholar El, Gubran M. The basic substances of plant and animal origin, which are used as foodstuff, can be legally used in crop protection in organic farming with the exception of being used as herbicides.
There are also many trees, shrubs, and ornamental and vegetable crops with resistant varieties on the market.
based on 54 review